Glossary

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

A

Alien species A species, subspecies or lower taxon introduced outside its normal past or present distribution; includes any part, gametes, seeds, eggs or propagules of such species that might survive and subsequently reproduce. Also known as: non-native, non-indigenous, foreign, exotic.

B

Baselines The pre-eradication measurement of an indicator. Important in comparing to indicator values after the eradication to establish the changes due to the eradication.
Best practise An activity or procedure that has produced outstanding results and has been adopted and applied more widely, resulting in improved effectiveness, and/or efficiency.
Biodiversity The variability among living organisms from all sources including, inter alia, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part; this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems. Synonym: biological diversity.
Biosecurity Keeping islands free of invasive species. Includes prevention, surveillance and incursion response.

C

Containment Keeping an invasive species within a defined area..
Contingency plan Another name for the incursion response plan.
Control Reducing the density or distribution (or both) of an invasive species to below a pre-set acceptable level, e.g. to where a vulnerable native species can recover and breed successfully

D


E

EEA Environmental Effects Assessment. A study of how the project will impact the island. Sometimes called an EIA (Environmental Impact Assessment). EEAs are often required as part of a consent process.
Endemic Where a species is native to and limited to a particular geographic region, because of factors such as isolation or response to soil or climatic conditions. For example the Rarotongan flycatcher or kakerori is only found in the Cook Islands.
Eradication The removal of the entire population of an invasive species from an island.
Establishment the process of a species in a new habitat successfully reproducing at a level sufficient to ensure continued survival of the populations.

F

Feral Wild or untamed. Often applied to animals or plants that have lapsed into a wild state from a domesticated condition

G

GIS Geographic Information System. GIS is a graphic and interactive computer system for information management related to positions on the Earth's surface. A Geographical Information System is often used for handling maps of one kind or another. These might be represented as several different layers where each layer holds data about a particular kind of feature. Each feature is linked to a position on the graphical image on a map and a record in an attribute table.
Goal A goal is a long term, general desired result.

H

Habitat Means the place or type of site where an organism or population naturally occurs

I

Implementing agency The person, group of people or organization that has responsibility for undertaking the eradication project.
Incursion The new arrival of an invasive species on the island.
Incursion response What actions the project team will take if an incursion is thought to have occurred. Part of biosecurity.
Indicator Something that is measured that represents the changes due to the project and tells you if you have achieved the objectives and outcomes of the project.
Indigenous species Another name for native species.
Intentional introduction The purposeful movement by humans of a species outside its natural range and dispersal potential (such introductions may be authorised or unauthorised).
Interception A detection of an organism in a transitional facility or a biosecurity control area, on or in risk goods
Introduction The movement, by human agency, of a species, subspecies or lower taxon (including any part, gametes, seeds, eggs, or propagule that might survive and subsequently reproduce) outside its natural range (past or present). This movement can be either within a country or between countries. (Notes: 1) it refers to “movement” regardless as to whether establishment is anticipated or not. 2) it refers to the crossing of a bio-geographical boundary rather than a political boundary 3) it refers to movement into an area regardless as to whether other individuals or populations of that species are already present in that area. 4) the use of this term is very similar in the CBD context, but significantly differently in the IPPC context)
Introduced species Plants, animals and other organisms taken beyond their natural range by people, deliberately or unintentionally.
Invasive species Are plants, animals and other organisms taken beyond their natural range by people, deliberately or unintentionally, and which become destructive to the environment or human interests. Also known as pests or weeds (for plants).
Invasion The establishment of a new species not previously recorded
Issue Something that is a problem for the project.

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M

Mitigation One of the options for managing risks. Involves reducing the likelihood of a risk occurring and/or reducing the impact if the risk did occur.
Monitoring The repeated measurement of an indicator to assess how it is changing through time.

N

Native species Plants, animals and other organisms that occur naturally on an island or in a specified area, having either evolved there or arrived there without human intervention
Neophobia Fear of new things. For example cats and rats can avoid new baits, bait stations or traps in their territories when they are first put out. Neophobia can also happen after a bad experience, e.g. a trap going off and the animal getting a fright but not getting caught or poorly laid bait that makes an animal sick but doesn’t kill it. You can reduce the chances of neophobia by putting devices out well before you use them to let them weather in and always using best practice for each technique you use
Non target species Species unintentionally affected by the project.

O

Objective An objective is a specific achievement on the way to the goal. A goal can have several associated objectives.
Organisms Individual or individuals belonging to a species. Sometimes used interchangeably with “species”.
Outcome A change resulting from the achievement of an objective. Achieving an objective can mean one or more outcomes are produced.

P

Pathway Broadly defined as the means (e.g. aircraft, vessel or train), purpose or activity (e.g. agriculture, forestry or horticulture), or a commodity (e.g. timber) by which an alien species may be transported to a new location, either intentionally or unintentionally.
Pest Another name for invasive species.
Prevention Stopping invasive species from invading an island. A part of biosecurity.
Primary poisoning Is poisoning from directly eating the toxic bait. See also secondary poisoning.

Q

Quarantine Another name for biosecurity prevention.

R

Response A systematic effort to eradicate, contain or control invasive alien species while the infestation is still in an early stage. It may be implemented in response to new introductions or to isolated newly discovered infestations of a previously established, alien species. Removing pests discovered before they establish a new breeding population.
Re-introduction Means an attempt to establish a species in an area which was once part of its historical range, but from which it has been extirpated or become extinct
Re-invasion The re-establishment of an invasive species that was eradicated.
Risk A potential issue that can harm the project.
Risk management Identifying and dealing with risks to the project.

S

Secondary poisoning Is poisoning which results when one animal comes into contact with or ingests another animal that has poison in its system from eating the bait. If the level of toxicity in the prey animal is sufficiently high, it will harm the predator. See also primary poisoning.
Species Group of organisms all of which have a high degree of physical and genetic similarity, generally interbreed among themselves, and show persistent differences from members of allied groups of organisms. (Note: the use of the term “species” in the Resource Kit implies the inclusion of subspecies or lower taxon as appropriate).
Stakeholder Any person or organization who contributes to, is affected, positively or negatively, by the project
Surveillance Surveying to detect the presence of invasive species. Part of biosecurity.

T

Target species The species that the eradication project is eradicating from the island(s). <

U

Uninentional introduction An introduction of a species outside its natural range introduced “unwittingly” by humans or human delivery systems.

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W

Weed A plant invasive species.

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Z